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It has become the prestige variety of colloquial Indonesian. Also the standard informal style, language of everyday communication between Indonesian in all but formal situation. It is the everyday speech of people with whom most visitors to Indonesia need to communicate. It is also called by other names such as Jakartanese Errington , Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian Wouk a; Sneddon , and Informal Jakartan Indonesian Sneddon , , , which indicate the geographical origin of this variety. Other terms used by Indonesian linguists and laypersons alike do not specifically suggest a geographical origin but rather its key characteristics.

For example:. Thus for the foreign learner proficiency in both formal and informal — this means Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian — is essential for effective communication. It is also essential to have an understanding of the appropriateness of styles. So that each style is used in the correct social context.

The colloquial chapter will explain colloquial words usage, syntax sentence structure and morphology word structure. The description is confined to aspects of colloquial Indonesian where there are significant differences with the formal Indonesian. Tim has published a number of journal articles and book chapters on the learning of pragmatics of Indonesian by Australian students. Published in Colloquial and The Language. Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian By Dr. Finally, the author gives lexical comparisons between Binanderean and four other putative eastern New Guinea subgroups of the Trans New Guinea family, and shows that Binanderean is indeed a likely member of the family.

Based on the location of the Trans New Guinea subgroup which appears to display the strongest lexical resemblances to Binanderean, as well as on the location of Guhu-Samane, she hypothesises a northerly dispersal centre and a southeastern migratory direction for the Binanderean-speaking peoples. This grammar is therefore an attempt to salvage from the scarce material available as complete a description of Malgana as possible.

Nevertheless, the character of Malgana shines through what remains. For example, typical of Pama-Nyungan languages in general, Malgana exhibits split-ergative nominal marking, and of Aboriginal languages of the central West of Australia in particular, Malgana displays a full contrastive laminal series of stops in its phonology. A conscious effort has been made to provide in this grammar as many resources as possible for the researcher interested in comparative study of the surrounding languages. To this end, a Malgana-based comparative wordlist has been constructed for the languages of the region centring on the Murchison River: Malgana, Nhanda, Badimaya, Wajarri, and Southern and Northern Yingkarta.

It is a member of the Baining language family. Baining people share a common non-Austronesian ancestral language and similar cultural practices such as fire dances. An interesting feature of these languages is that they show a great deal of influence from their early Austronesian neighbors. This is the first comprehensive grammar for a language from the family and provides a framework for further comparative and descriptive research in the region.

The grammar was produced in cooperation with members of the Mali Baining community and has been published alongside a dictionary and text collection also available from Pacific Linguistics. Jauncey Tamambo is a previously undescribed language of northern Vanuatu, now spoken by approximately people. It is a conservative Oceanic language, reflecting many of the consonant phonemes posited for Proto Oceanic POc ; lexically, many Tamambo words are reflexes of those posited for POc. This is a grammatical description of Tamambo; it is a nominative-accusative language, and is primarily head-marking.

The description includes analysis of the considerable derivational morphology, possessive constructions, serial verb constructions, and an animacy hierarchy that interrelates with various aspects of the grammar. Five texts from various oral genre are included. Volume 4 examines the terms that Proto Oceanic speakers used to name animals and parts of animals. After the general introduction to the series, Chapter 2 presents more than POc reconstructed names for fish, as well as many additional names attributable to major interstages below POc.

Chapter 3 investigates the retention rates of a sample of 52 POc fish names and asks why the number of fish names reconstructed for POc is so much smaller than the number typically distinguished by contemporary Oceanic languages. Chapter 4 presents reconstructions of terms for aquatic invertebrates. Chapter 5 deals with terms for mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Again it is partly about creatures of the sea. Other than New Guinea, the islands of Oceania have few native land mammals. Chapter 6 deals with names for bird taxa and other terms associated with birds. The final chapter of the volume, chapter 8, investigates the semantic histories of several terms that may have been high-level generics or life-forms in the POc taxonomy of animals.

It looks for recurrent patterns in the way different languages have extended or reduced the referential range of each of these terms. The volume begins with some three dozen short texts, translated, covering a variety of topics including food gathering, implement manufacture, and ecology. The dictionary section includes a detailed Jingulu-English dictionary with example sentences for each word as well as grammatical and ethnographic notes, an English-Jingulu word finder, and a word list by semantic domain.

Although the Meyah had early contact with Western people, specifically the British in the early 18th century and the Dutch in the early 19th century, very little has been written on the language or the people. The region is of particular linguistic interest because of its location which forms a convergence zone between Austronesian and Papuan languages.

Long term contact between the two linguistic families shows an interesting hybridization between Austronesian and Papuan language features. This description of the Meyah language provides a synchronic snapshot of such diachronic changes taking place in what is presumably a Papuan language. The book begins with a brief comparison between two closely related dialects, Meyah and Moskona. Meyah became a north-coast oriented society, whereas Moskona remained isolated between the southern flank of the Arfak Mountains and the coastal lowlands. In the northwest, the area is bounded by Sulawesi.

Some languages are spoken in East Nusantara, most of which are endangered in terms of numbers of speakers, and the majority of which have not yet been described. Linguistically this geographic region displays great genetic diversity, being the meeting ground of languages belonging to the Austronesian and Papuan language families. Yet, similarities cut across language family boundaries, giving rise to the notion of a linguistic area or Sprachbund.

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In chapter one, we present a brief history of the region and an overview of recent research that has had East Nusantara in its scope. This serves as a general background for the chapters on individual languages that make up the rest of the volume. The strong focus on presenting new data from a range of previously underdocumented languages in the region also provides valuable input for further comparative work.

Taken together these chapters demonstrate the significance of East Nusantara as a region of linguistic enquiry. At the same time, they highlight the ability of ongoing investigations, both empirical and theoretical, to help us continue refining the notion of East Nusantara as a linguistic area. Namia belongs to the Yellow River subgroup of the Middle Sepik family.

The authors have all worked with the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Papua New Guinea, each living for significant periods in the community about whose language they have written. Pawley edited by John Bowden, Nikolaus P. Himmellmann and Malcolm Ross The papers in this volume have been presented to Andrew Pawley in honour of his extensive work on Austronesian and Papuan languages and cultures.

They cover a wide range of topics, from language description to historical linguistics and from archaeology and population genetics to the anthropology of performance and the typology of poetic meter. The book provides a fascinating snapshot of current work across the fields of Austronesian and Papuan linguistics and culture history and the papers in it will be important reading for scholars working in these fields. The Turung have a mixed ancestry of Tai and Singpho, but their language is clearly the latter Tibeto-Burman family though with a substantial stratum of Tai.

This publication includes a DVD containing the full text of the grammatical description in web format xml with comprehensive links from language examples to recordings, and to the context of the example: transcriptions of the texts from which they are drawn. He has also done research on the historical sources of the Aboriginal languages of Victoria, leading to a number of publications.

It also contains discussion of selected topics in the history of Hmong-Mien: phonological change, tonogenesis and tone development, ancient morphology, numerals and pronouns, language contact, and the ancient Hmong-Mien world. Some of the fragments are still visible on the land. Some are under water. Some may be buried, or might have been moved from their original location.

Some are lost forever, and can only be reconstructed in their location and form by careful assessment of the pieces that are still evident and creative re-imagining of what must have happened. Similarly, the Narungga language was also fragmented by devastating events in the past. At the time the revival project began in earnest, some fragments were still known in the community. Some were buried in archives in Australia and International. Some had become fragmented by inadequate recording practices, the strong influence of English and other Aboriginal languages, or fading memories.

And some are lost, probably forever. The Narungga language in the present has been pieced together by careful assessment of the fragments known in the community and found in various sources, comparisons with related language data, and creative re-imagining from the past into the future. The present work represents the renewed Narungga language in its initial phase in the first few years of the twenty-first century — a time when a group of speakers and teachers of Narungga was emerging, for the first time in perhaps years. It includes discussion of aspects of language awaiting further research, and incorporates some more recent data to reflect the continued development of the language by its speakers up to the end of In this volume, both the historical evidence and the details of each structure now in use are set out, together with the argumentation which has led to each decision made.

As the language continues to change and grow, the present work will stand as a record of the fragments of memory left by Narungga Elders of the past, and the initial rebuilding of those fragments by their descendants in the early part of the twenty-first century. It is meant to serve the immediate needs of readers embarking on the study of the inscriptions, and assumes that they have some acquaintance with modern Khmer.

Designed for easy reference, it addresses the main points of grammar and style in the great majority of the texts. A few matters of special interest not previously brought to public notice are discussed in fair detail. Included are a bibliography designed to assist students, and a lexicon of Old Khmer words occurring in the text.

It can be considered a companion volume to Prof. In the current work the author enlarges on the lexicostatistically based work and applies the comparative method of historical linguistics to the Koiarian languages, identifying shared innovations that define subgroups within the family and reconstructing the protophonology and about lexical items of Proto Koiarian.

He provides similar reconstructions for Proto Koiaric and Proto Bariaic, the languages ancestral to the two major subgroups within Koiarian. This volume presents a short grammar of the Abma language, including major sections on work class categorisation, phonology, morphology, phrase and clause-level syntax, and information structure. In this sketch the Paha dialect of the western group is described. This volume is a much revised and reworked translation of materials by Li Jinfang, originally published in Chinese in the late s, which fills a sorely felt gap in the descriptive sources available in English.

Its publication now is especially welcome as Buyang shows various morphological parallels with Austronesian, which as have been noted in recent discussions about the linguistic prehistory of SE Asia. Paha also possesses a number of lexical items and structural features that are shared by surrounding Miao-Yao, Mon-Khmer and Tibeto-Burman languages. The work includes a selection of texts and a substantial lexicon, in addition to the grammatical sketch and detailed geographical and social information.

Stebbins with the assistance of Julius Tayul Available as a PDF file only on disc This collection of twenty Mali texts was recorded in and and were transcribed and translated by Tonya Stebbins and Julius Tayul. The texts are a representative sample of the materials used as a corpus in the development of the Mali Baining Grammar Stebbins forthcoming and Mali Baining Dictionary Stebbins forthcoming.

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There are around 2, speakers of Mali living in eleven villages across Mali territory or in nearby villages and towns. Language shift to Tok Pisin is well established in the Mali community but children with two Mali parents still acquire Mali as their first language. Only the oldest generation of Mali speakers 50 or more years of age is fully fluent in Mali; able to use it in all domains without ad hoc borrowings from Tok Pisin. Both dialects, both genders and speakers aged from 30 to 65 years of age are represented in this collection. In order to reconstruct linguistic history it is necessary to take stock of this sociolinguistic context and adjust the methods of reconstruction accordingly.

This study presents a theoretically robust, sociolinguistic framework for historical reconstruction which supplements a traditional comparative reconstruction of phonology and morphology. AD th century , which was the point of common origin for these lects, and defines them as a subgroup within Indo-Aryan. This book provides the first detailed internal comparison of these languages.

Several hundred cognate sets and reconstructed proto forms provide a basis for an account of the phonological history of fifteen selected languages. An argument is made for a unified origin of these languages from an ancestor not far removed from Proto Oceanic. McGregor and Alan Rumsey In this book we attempt to establish the genetic relatedness of a set of some twenty named regional speech varieties of the Northern Kimberley region of Western Australia.

We argue that, contrary to recent claims by some scholars, they constitute a genetic family-like unit. The case is argued by application of the comparative method, along with a lexical-statistical method, a modified version of lexicostatistics, that compares lexical similarities in both form and semantics within the basic vocabularies of the languages with no presumption of genetic relatedness.

The results of these two independent methods are in substantial agreement, thus providing independent support for our proposals. The main thrust of the volume is an application of the comparative method, whereby we establish the genetic relatedness of the languages by reconstructing features—mainly phonological and grammatical, to a lesser extent lexical—of a protolanguage from which features of the modern languages could plausibly have derived.

We also present comparative evidence that three primary subgroups can be distinguished in the family. Plants Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond, editors This is the third in a series of six volumes on the lexicon of Proto Oceanic, the ancestor of the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family. Volume 3 examines the terms that Proto Oceanic speakers used to name plants and parts of plants. Chapters present reconstructed names of wild plants, organised by vegetation habitat: the coastal strand, mangrove swamp, rain forest and secondary forest. Chapters investigate the naming of cultivated plants: staple foods, green vegetables, nut and fruit trees, the coconut and a variety of cultivated non-food plants.

Jenner, edited by Doug Cooper A thousand years of Cambodian epigraphy — from the 7th Century to the 15th — come to life in this handsome hardbound set. Jenner dissects every single word from more than 1, inscriptions, tracing etymologies back to Sanskrit and Pali and forward to modern Khmer and Thai. Jenner draws on a century of French and Cambodian scholarship — never translated into English — as well as his own authoritative translation of the Old Khmer texts to produce an unparalled reference to the complete corpus of Cambodian inscriptions.

Klon is one of these languages, spoken on the west coast of the island of Alor. This is the first descriptive grammar of Klon, adding to the slowly growing — but as yet mainly unpublished — body of knowledge concerning the structure of the Alor languages. This grammar is primarily based on a corpus of spoken texts from the Bring dialect. Phonetics and phonology, morphology, clausal and inter-clausal syntax are described, including the pronominal system which works on an agentive basis, and commonly used serial verb constructions.

There are still fourteen extant Formosan Austronesian languages in Taiwan, but only thirteen indigenous groups are officially recognised by the Taiwanese government. The present study investigates the Nanwang dialect of the Puyuma language, spoken by the people in Nanwang and Paoshang Suburbs of Taitung City in southern Taiwan. The aim of this grammar is to describe the phonology and morphosyntax of Puyuma. BLT emphasises the need to describe each language in its own terms, rather than imposing on it concepts derived from other languages.

Serial verbs can be described linguistically as a sequence of verbs which behave as a single complex predicate. A particular focus of this book is the detailed examination given by most authors to the relationship of such uniclausal linguistic structures with the real world notion of eventhood. The book also makes a valuable addition to the description and analysis of serial verb constructions from the Pacific, a region which has generally been under-represented in cross-linguistic discussions of verb serialisation. The book will appeal to syntacticians and typologists as well as to Austronesianists and Papuanists.

This reconstruction shows that there is a sufficient evidentiary basis, according to the canons of standard historical linguistics, to show that the Mirndi languages constitute a distinct language family. The evidence comes from closed class morphemes, both grammatical and lexical. The evidence from open, lexical classes is negligible and would not suffice to establish the family. The reconstruction also considers the evidence as to the territorial associations of Proto-Mirndi.

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There are a number of strands of evidence, which though limited, all converge in indicating that the territorial associations of Proto-Mirndi were in the vicinity of the south-western Gulf of Carpentaria. As such, this implies shifts in territorial affiliations of the Mirndi varieties from east to west.

In addition its linguistic aspects, the reconstruction also provides a detailed overview of the history of subsections. Subsections are a salient social construct across much of north-central and north-western Australia. The reconstruction shows that subsections are of considerable time depth, and also that the diffusion of subsections is of considerable time depth. He is also the author of A grammar of Manam and A grammar of Toqabaqita. McGregor PDF FILE only This edited volume represents the first book-length study of the history of research on Australian Aboriginal languages, and collects together 18 original papers on a wide variety of topics, spanning the period from first settlement to the present day.

The introduction sets the scene for the book by presenting an overview of the history of histories of research on the languages of Australia, and identifying some of the major issues in Aboriginal linguistic historiography as well as directions for future investigations. Part 1 presents three detailed investigations of the history of work on particular languages and regions. The eight papers of Part 2 study and re-evaluate the contributions of particular individuals, most of who are somewhat marginal or have been marginalised in Aboriginal linguistics. Part 3 consists of six studies specific linguistic topics: sign language research, language revival, pidgins and creoles, fieldwork, Fr.

Overall, the volume presents two major challenges to Australianist orthodoxy.

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First, the papers challenge the typically anachronistic approaches to the history of Aboriginal linguistics, and reveal the need to examine previous research in the context of their times — and the advantages of doing so to contemporary understanding and language documentation. Pendau belongs to the Tomini-Tolitoli subgroup, and this book is the first comprehensive decription of any of these languages.

The grammar is very richly exemplified and covers a wide range of linguistic phenomena from phonetics and phonology through to cohesion and prominence in discourse as well as an analysis of the discourse structure of a number of different genres. In Kalam, these constructions take the form of one or more bare verb stems followed by an inflected verb. Serial verb constructions in Kalam, as with other serialising languages, resemble single clauses in some ways and sequences of clauses in others.

For instance, Kalam speakers combine stems to express new words — useful in Kalam, which has only around verb stems. However, Kalam serial verb constructions are unusually long and complex, sometimes up to nine or ten verb stems in length. Kalam speakers like to talk about things that happen according to detailed formulas, describing, for instance, where a person went, what they did when they got there, and what they did with the result. Serial verb constructions allow speakers to express such formulas in a single clause, and because many verb stems consist of just one syllable, they can utter them at breakneck speed.

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And that speed in turn helps speakers combine stems into new words and grammatical markers. An unusual alignment pattern of core grammatical marking is also identified. Typologically important grammatical features are discussed in detail, including the human classifier system and the nominal and pronominal system and its interaction with kinship terms and kinship classifiers. Verbal categories such as adjectives, serial verb constructions, copula verbs are described in depth, some posing interesting questions for linguistic theory. This work makes available for the first time materials from a lesser-known dialect group and is enriched by descriptions of the cultural practices of Lisu communities.

It is hoped that the book will provide a new source for both diachronic and synchronic comparison by Sino-Tibetan scholars, while its anthropological and ethnographic approach may serve as a model for future researchers intending to work in this area. It is spoken in the village of Vinmavis on the west coast of the island of Malakula in the Republic of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific. A synchronic approach is taken with no attempt being made to focus on earlier stages of the history of related languages.

Despite the fact that it is one of the larger local languages in Papua Province in terms of numbers of speakers, a comprehensive grammar on this language has hitherto not been published. This book aims to give an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of the Maybrat language as it is spoken by the people of Ayawasi.

With this in mind, the grammar is full of illustrative examples centred around contrasts in form and meaning, which are discussed in the text. The Bukawa villages are all situated on the coastal plain of the Huon Peninsula. This book represents an analysis of the grammar of the Bukawa language of Papua New Guinea, based upon data accumulated over a thirteen year period during which the author lived and worked with members of the language group doing Bible translation and literary work.

Blake Yalarnnga is a language from Dajarra and country to its east, in far western Queensland. This grammar presents all that could be learnt by the authors from their work with the last three aged speakers, two of whom spoke it only as a second language. Typologically Yalarnnga is a fairly typical Pama-Nyungan language. It makes an interesting comparison with its northern neighbour, Kalkutungu, with which it shares some lexical and grammatical features, but not some distinctive sound changes that are reflected in that language.

That is, one can be substituted for another for the same spatial, abstract, or temporal configuration without an immediately apparent difference in meaning. Even though interchangeability of prepositions is common in Indonesian discourse and has been observed by some, surprisingly there is no explanation available on this aspect of preposition use.

This study aims to address the interchangeability issue beyond a brief mention and will examine the uses of the prepositions in speech and writing and in different types of discourse or genre. It is hypothesized that overlaps in the semantic range provide speakers with alternatives for expressing the same situation, but preposition selection is motivated not only by semantic considerations, but also by pragmatic and discourse-related factors. Such things as whether the message is spoken or written, to whom it is conveyed, and for what purpose it is conveyed, all correlate in motivating preposition choice.

With regard to language specific scope, this study is intended to fill a gap in the current studies of Indonesian prepositions by providing a descriptive account of prepositional meanings that reflects more closely the range of actual uses by speakers in spoken and written discourses. It also aims to address the issue of preposition alternation, which has received little attention in previous studies.

Sommer This book examines the interface between language and kinship in the Australian Aboriginal language Kunjen which is spoken in the Cape York region of northern Queensland. The author shows that kinship relations play a major role in determining the kinds of linguistic interactions that are appropriate for different groups of individuals. The rules of interpretation used by Kunjen speakers to mediate kinship and language are as complex and as pervasive as the grammatical rules of the language itself, and help to reveal aspects of linguistic structure that might not otherwise be obvious.

Conversely, kinship structures can be illuminated, if not revealed, by the study of language use. This style of language is in many ways significantly different from the formal language of government and education, to the extent that it deserves separate consideration. While formal Indonesian has been the subject of a considerable amount of description very little attention has been paid to informal styles of the language.

The variety described here, Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian, is the prestige variety of colloquial Indonesian and is becoming the standard informal style. The description and texts in following chapters are drawn from recordings of natural speech of educated people living in Jakarta. While the book aims to inform those with a background in linguistics the needs of teachers and learners with little or no knowledge of linguistics is always borne in mind. The work thus does not consider theoretical linguistic issues nor use technical terms which would not be readily understood by most readers.

It is spoken by about 10, people in the central highlands of Vietnam. The language is currently undergoing substantial change under the influence of Vietnamese. Pacoh shares many typological characteristics in common with other Mon-Khmer languages including a topic-comment style of basic SVO syntax.

It is a classifier language with noun-modifier word order. In common with many other Mon-Khmer languages, Pacoh has a sesquisyllabic word structure in which presyllables are unstressed, and vowel phonemes show a distinction in register.

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This book describes the major features of Pacoh grammar and also contains a glossary of Pacoh words. PDF file only. The current tendency towards globalisation has accentuated this movement. While the proliferation of economic ties and the speed of travel and communication have made the world a much smaller place, any particular location within the world is now faced with an increasing degree of contact between cultures and languages.

Migrating people bring with them languages in various stages of planning, with differing status and with differing relationships to their personal and group identity. The present study explores the ways in which three immigrant communities have adjusted and adapted to a new setting in Australia, and the ways in which the host community has contributed to this process. One of the monographs, Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula Vanuatu , had been submitted to Pacific Linguistics a couple of weeks earlier.

The remaining three, including the current volume, were in various stages of completion, and John Lynch was asked by the Board of Pacific Linguistics to prepare all four for publication, both as a memorial to Terry and because of the valuable data they contain. A further variety—for which no name has yet been recorded—is associated with the Alovas area further to the east along the northern coast of Malakula. Finally, a variety known as Njav originates from the area inland from Tanmial to the east and south of Alovas, though its speakers have relocated to the small village of Tanmaliliv in the Espiegles Bay area.

These five communalects exhibit substantially differing degrees of linguistic viability. The Naha communalect of Vovo village is actively spoken, and based on the census figures, it possibly has around speakers today. The communalect of Alovas reportedly has only about 15 speakers left, with the population of this village having shifted substantially to Naha, bringing the total population of Naha speakers today to about Njav is reportedly still the daily language of the small village of Tanmaliliv. It had an estimated 10 speakers in Najit is moribund, though in this case the replacement language is the Espiegles Bay variety of what is referred to in the literature as the Malua Bay language.

Finally, Nese—the subject of the present study—is also moribund, being actively spoken only in the small hamlet known locally as Matanvat SDA Seventh Day Adventist by a single extended family consisting of two brothers and their wives, along with their children and their parents. There are speakers of Nese also to be found in the small villages of Lerrongrrong, Tontarr, Senbukhas and Tontarrasak, though the dominant language of these communities is now Bislama.

Bislama has come to be the dominant language as a result of extensive settlement of the Matanvat area by people from other parts of Malakula. Of the entire Matanvat area population of about today, only five families represent the original population of the area, and the total number of speakers of Nese is probably no more than Children are no longer learning this speech variety, and most adults in the Matanvat area now seldom use it even when speaking with their own relatives with whom they share a knowledge of Nese. Terry had been visiting the island of Malakula in Vanuatu since the end of , and had undertaken studies of four languages spoken there: Naman, Tape and Nese, which are all moribund languages, and Avava, still actively spoken.

Descriptions of all four were well advanced at the time of his death, though this one was the only one to have been actually submitted for publication. Naman, the subject of this linguistic description, is a moribund language that is spoken on the island of Malakula in the Republic of Vanuatu.

Vanuatu is located in the southwest Pacific to the west of Fiji and to the east of northern Queensland Map 1. One of the four, Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula Vanuatu , had been submitted to Pacific Linguistics a couple of weeks earlier, and the remaining three, including the current volume, were in various stages of completion.

John Lynch was asked by the Board of Pacific Linguistics to prepare all four for publication, both as a memorial to Terry and because of the valuable data they contain. The neighbouring group to the northeast of Tape territory spoke the Tirakh language.

During the colonial era, they moved down to the coast and their traditional homeland is now unoccupied. Tape is a relocated language that is now spoken by only a handful of older people some distance away from their traditional homeland, which has been abandoned as a place of residence. The traditional territory of Tape speakers was an area of northwestern Malakula extending inland between the Lowisinwei River valley and across to the eastern bank of the Brenwei River to the south of a mountain called Pwitarvere.

Although Tape traditional territory include a stretch of coast from Anuatakh to Lowisinwei—which gave people living in this area access to salt which they could trade with the Tirakh people—Tape speakers oriented their lives primarily towards the bush.

This is reflected in this study in the fact that speakers today were unable to offer more than an absolute minimum of terminology relating to sea life, even though they have lived in the coastal village of Tautu for about eighty years. Tape was originally the name for the area shown on the map where the language which is the subject of this description was originally spoken. However, speakers of the language today—and other people of Tape descent who do not speak the language—have come to use Tape as the name for the language as well.

One of the four, Naman: a vanishing language of Malakula Vanuatu , had been submitted to Pacific Linguistics a couple of weeks earlier, and the remaining three were in various stages of completion, and John Lynch was asked by the Board of Pacific Linguistics to prepare all four for publication, both as a memorial to Terry and because of the valuable data they contain.

Avava currently falls into the category described in Lynch and Crowley —19 as being among the most poorly documented of all languages in Vanuatu. Published documentation of this language by a linguist is restricted to two fairly short wordlists in Tryon In addition to this recent data, there is also a very small amount of published data on the Umbbuul variety of this language that can be extracted from Deacon , which derives from his anthropological fieldwork in the area in This data, however, is restricted to just a small number of kin terms for each variety, with no other vocabulary having been recorded.

Avava is the primary language today of four villages in central Malakula: Tisvel, Khatbol, Taremp and Tembimbi. In contrast to the Naman and Tape languages of Malakula that I have worked on previously, Avava is an actively spoken language which continues to be passed on to present-day generations of children in all of these villages.

Merei, like most other languages from the interior of Espiritu Santo, has not previously been described. Merei is an SVO language with many typical Oceanic features such as a split between alienable and inalienable possession and frequent verb serialisation. Morphological structure is relatively simple, but bi-morphemic nouns are common. The language is rigidly head-marking and prepositional.

This work is mainly based on language data collected by the author in Navele village in Espiritu Santo Island of Vanuatu, where he lived from May until March Discoveries over the past 50 years have given Near Oceania a prominence in world prehistory far beyond its demographic, economic and political importance. Archaeological research has established that by 40, years ago people had made the ocean crossings from South-east Asia to the Australia-New Guinea continent and had reached New Britain and New Ireland.

By 30, years ago they had penetrated the high valleys of the central highlands of New Guinea. There is evidence of cultivation of taro, yam and banana and associated forest clearance in some parts of the central highlands from 10, years ago and this takes on a more systematic, agricultural character after about 7, years ago. The northern third of New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse part of the planet, containing a concentration of disparate language families consistent with in situ diversification in the late Pleistocene. The Bismarcks and Solomons are a second area of great linguistic diversity.

Research in population genetics, using mitochondrial and Y-chromosome DNA, shows a degree of genetic variation in Near Oceania consistent with at least 40, years of human settlement and in situ diversification of semi-isolated populations, while also in some cases suggesting several distinct population arrivals.

The 28 chapters of the book include state of the art reports by archaeologists, historical linguists, environmental scientists, cultural anthropologists, biological anthropologists and population geneticists, together with introductions by the four editors. Rather than publish a single very diverse collection of conference papers, the organisers favoured a series of smaller compilations on specific topics. The present volume represents another such compilation.

It contains an introduction by the editors and ten papers on voice in Austronesian languages which provide both fresh data and some new perspectives on old problems. Katagiri and Kaufman each take a fresh look at an aspect of Tagalog voice. There is also a report of a major German-Burmese lexicography project.

The contributors have been invited to write on research topics of their own choosing, making the volume a representative of current research on Burmese rather than a systematic linguistic survey of the language. While not all the articles are theory-neutral, the book has been edited to ensure accessibility to a broad readership, as well as consistent transcription, transliteration and linguistic glossing across all the articles.

In prehistoric times speakers of these languages migrated to the Asian mainland from insular Southeast Asia. Over many years of independent development plus prolonged contact with mainland languages, they have shifted typologically, particularly towards reduced word structure, increased phoneme inventory, and more isolating syntax. The emphasis of the papers is on historical change, particularly in respect of lexical borrowings and the evolution of phonological systems. The description primarily focuses on the segmental alternations that are derived due the morphological processes of prefixation, suffixation and reduplication.

It is observed that the phonology of prefixation, suffixation and reduplication in the language are quite distinct both in character and degree of generality. Processes that are visibly active in prefixation are generally not active in the suffixation or reduplication, and vice versa. This asymmetry has not been satisfactorily accounted for in previous works. The phonological analysis proposed in this book is couched in the theoretical framework of Correspondence Theory, set within the constraint-based approach of Optimality Theory.

The Gayo people have historically had close ties to the majority Acehnese of the coast, while maintaining their distinct cultural and linguistic heritage. Gayo remains the first language of most ethnic Gayo to this day, and it is the vehicle for a rich oral literary tradition. The language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages. It is typologically unlike Acehnese, but shares certain features such as voice with the Batak languages of the neighbouring province of North Sumatra. Gayo features a voice system of the type that has been referred to as symmetrical, whereby neither actor nor undergoer voice can be considered the basic or unmarked alignment.

The language also features valence-increasing affixes, and a range of verbal affixes that mark intransitive verbs to indicate information about various different semantic types of events. This grammar is the first detailed descriptive account of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Gayo. The analysis draws upon data that reflect the cultural context in which the language is spoken, and in the appendices two Gayo texts with their translations are included.

The language is spoken by groups of foragers in the mountain rainforests of northern Peninsular Malaysia and southernmost Thailand, its total number of speakers estimated at around 1, This study describes the grammar of Jahai, including its phonology, processes of word formation, word classes, and syntax.

It also includes a word-list. While primarily aimed at linguistic description, the study makes use of suitable theoretical models for the analysis of linguistic features. Typological comparisons are made at times, especially with other Aslian languages. The study is intended to expand our knowledge of the understudied Aslian languages. It is also intended to contribute to Mon-Khmer and Southeast Asian language studies in general, and, hopefully, also to a wider linguistic context.

Furthermore, it may serve as a practical source of linguistic information for researchers and others working among the Northern Aslian speech communities. This book presents chapters on phonology, syntax, lexicography and the writing system, as well as discussing earlier recorded data on the Tai languages in detail.

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Together with the book, there is a CD version of the linguistic analysis, linked to text files, sound files and photographs. Every language example is linked to a sound file, and to a document file containing a full transcription of the text from which that example has come.

The comprehensive nature of this linking between the grammatical analysis and the primary data allows linguists, other scholars and members of the Tai community to check any of the claims made in the analysis. This innovative combination of book and CD therefore represents both a grammatical description in the best traditions of linguistics as well as a substantial documentation of the Tai languages.

In the CD version, an electronic appendix presents a rich corpus of texts, from a wide range of styles and genres, together with documents presenting a transcription, translation and thoroughly annotated analysis for each of the texts presented. Baxter and Patrick de Silva Kristang, or Papiah Kristang, is spoken by a small community in the Hilir suburb of Malacca, West Malaysia, and by descendants of the Malacca community elsewhere in Malaysia and in Singapore. Contrary to what has sometimes been claimed by lay authors, Kristang is not sixteenth-century Portuguese.

Rather, it is a Creole language, a language born of the contacts between speakers of Portuguese and speakers of local and other languages. This dictionary of Kristang Malacca Creole Portuguese is the most exhaustive dictionary of the language yet published. A number of different approaches to historical genetic classification are taken in the papers by Mark Donohue on southeast Sulawesi, Malcolm Ross on Malayic languages, and Jae Jung Song on the Micronesian languages.

The systems of deixis and demonstratives in the Oceanic languages represented in the contributions to this volume illustrate the fascinating complexity of spatial reference in these languages. It is hoped that this anthology will contribute to a better understanding of this area and provoke further studies in this extremely interesting, though still rather underdeveloped, research area.

The study is based on data collected in and At the time the data was being collected, the Areyonga community had about inhabitants, more than half of them under 25 years of age. A key question of this work is the extent to which Areyonga Teenage Pitjantjatjara is being influenced by contact with English.

In order to identify changes in Areyonga Teenage Pitjantjatjara, contemporary speech was compared with several independent descriptions of Traditional Pitjantjatjara and similar neighbouring dialects. Personal observations of the author and discussions with older Pitjantjatjara people at Areyonga help to round out the picture obtained. The Areyonga population is predominantly young. Most of the older people have left the settlement to return to their community of origin. As a result, many traditional ways of living have not been transmitted fully to the following generation.

However there is an undeniable striving to reintegrate traditions into the community and the teaching of the children. Consequently, there is a constant effort to educate children in their first language. What then is the state of Areyonga Teenage Pitjantjatjara? This book aims to answer this question.

It deals with major patterns of phonology, morphology and syntax of Inanwatan. It also contains a vocabulary, extensive texts and materials from a linguistic survey of the Inanwatan district. The introductory chapter contains a discussion of the sociolinguistic and historical context of the Inanwatan language.

Special emphasis is given to the field linguistic problems that arise from describing a Papuan language in an advanced stage of generational erosion and on the basis of data in which Malay and Malayicised vernacular are often very hard to tell apart. The other volume is entitled Innamincka Talk: a grammar of the Innamincka dialect of Yandruwandha with notes on other dialects. Innamincka Words is for readers, especially descendants of the original people of the area, who are interested but not ready to undertake serious study of the language.

It is also a necessary resource for users of Innamincka Talk. These volumes document all that could be learnt from the last speakers of the language in the last years of their lives by a linguist who was involved with other languages at the same time. These were people who did not have a full knowledge of the culture of their forebears, but were highly competent, indeed brilliant, in the way they could teach what they knew to the linguist student.

Although the volumes document only a small part of a rich culture, they are a tribute to the ability and diligence of the teachers. The other volume is entitled Innamincka Words. Innamincka Talk is a more technical work and is intended for specialists and for interested readers who are willing to put some time and effort into studying the language. The current volume provides grammars, glossaries and texts for two of these languages: Kristine A.

Each grammar provides a full description of the phonology, morphology and syntax of the language, covering both the structural and functional properties of each. The glossaries contain lists of basic vocabulary, alternate forms, and comparisons with forms given in previous literature. The short texts provide insights into how speakers weave linguistic structures to produce fluent discourse. The book includes descriptions of the phonology, the morphology and word classes including the pronominal systems.

David Moeljadi's homepage: Colloquial (Jakartan) Indonesian

It also includes detailed descriptions of Nyangumarta main and complex clauses. Nyangumarta is of general typological interest. There are many reasons for this. Firstly, the status of word which emerges necessarily in the description of Nyangumarta verbal morphology contributes to the notion of there being a mismatch between what is regarded as a phonological word and what is regarded as a grammatical word in some languages. In Nyangumarta the paradigms of verbal pronouns illustrate a division between morphemes which are phonologically bound and those which are phonologically free; although both sets are grammatically bound to the verb.

The phonological system of Nyangumarta is of interest because its productive system of vowel assimilation within the verbal morphology is one of the most elaborate of all the Australian languages. Two independent suprasegmental tiers for tone and nasality, and a lack of contrastive segmental nasals, are rare phonological phenomena. Morphologically, the language displays a paradigm of agreement morphemes that agree with non-core arguments, while leaving, in most cases, the object of a transitive clause unmarked on the verb. There is also a word list and a selection of short texts illustrating many of the points covered in the grammatical description.

His fullest materials were on DuuNidjawu, spoken just to the northwest of Brisbane, and were recorded between and When he was in Canberra, Wurm would spend one or two afternoons each week going over these materials with Kite, explaining the shorthand and reviving his knowledge of the language.

He had never written a draft grammar of DuuNidjawu, but effectively had one in his head. Stephen Wurm passed away in late , after the thesis had been approved but before this work could be published. It comprises an invaluable record of the language of the DuuNidjawu people, and through this of their traditions, customs and laws. It is the only substantial record of a language which differs in various respects from prototypical non-prefixing Australian languages.

It has five vowels and a fair number of monosyllabic words. Pronouns and nouns referring to humans or to dogs have distinct case forms. Following the grammar sketch are all the texts recorded by Wurm and a full vocabulary and thesaurus. He died in Many papers originated at a workshop held at the Australian Linguistics Society conference at Monash University, but several have been written specially for this volume.